Isaac Newton was born on January 4, in Woolsthorpe, England. Isaac Newton was an established physicist and mathematician, and is credited as one of the great minds of the 17th century Scientific Revolution. With discoveries in optics, motion and mathematics, Newton developed the principles of modern physics. In 1687, he published his most acclaimed work, *Philosophiae, Natrualis, Principia Mathematica* (*Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy*), which has been called the single-most influential book on physics. In it he describes universal gravitation and the three laws of motion. Newton died in London on March 31, 1727.

### Learn About Newton’s Laws of Motion

Here’s another great video made by a 9th grader!

### Simple Experiments

###### 1st Law – “Law of Inertia”: An object in motion will stay in motion and an object at rest will stay at rest unless acted upon by an outside force.

(Things want to keep doing what they are already doing)

http://www.metrofamilymagazine.com/July-2012/Simple-Science-Experiments-Newtons-First-Law-of-Motion/

###### 2nd Law: Acceleration of an object depends on the mass of an object and the force applied. F=m*a.

(To make something go faster, push harder! Heavier things will move slower than lighter things.)

###### 3rd Law: For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.

(If you push an object, the object pushes back with the same force.)

http://billnye.com/billnye_resource/marble-maddness/

### Newton’s Cradle

Newton’s First Law, the Law of Inertia, states that an object at rest will remain at rest and an object in motion will remain in motion, unless acted upon by an outside force. The ball that is pulled back and released wants to keep moving, and the stationary balls would like to remain motionless. The collision that takes place between the moving ball and the stationary balls results in forces acting upon all the balls in the system. The moving ball has a certain amount of momentum (a tendency to remain in motion) and when it is stopped by the collision, this momentum is transferred to the next ball in the line. The next ball cannot go anywhere since it is sandwiched, so it transfers the momentum to the next ball in line. This transfer of momentum continues until the momentum is given to the last ball in the line. Because its movement is not blocked, when the last ball receives the momentum it continues on the path of the first ball. This process will repeat itself, going back and forth, until the energy of the system is lost to air resistance, friction, and vibrations and all the balls again come to rest. When two balls are pulled back and released then two balls at the opposite end will move. This is the result, rather than one ball moving with twice the momentum, because both momentum and energy must be conserved. The only way to satisfy that condition is if the same number of balls are ejected as were hit. Newton’s Third Law, which states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction, can be observed by the motion of the Newton’s Cradle system.

Here’s a fun Myth Busters episode with a giant “Newton’s Cradle”!